Although most clinical studies have reported
Although most clinical studies have reported a positive impact of platform switching on crestal bone stability, yet the data have still been controversial and inconclusive & up to date the literature still lacks providing clinical evidence about the true influence of platform switching on preserving bone and soft tissue .
Sewerin (1990)  utilized several methods to standardize radiographic measurements around dental implant. The use of standardized radiographs has been proposed as a reliable approach to reduce measurement error when comparing measurements between radiographs taken at different points in time.
Lazzara and porter, measured in the present study, periodontal parameters in terms of PPD, BOP, PI and soft tissue condition for clinical monitoring of implant soft tissue health. The peri-implant soft tissue parameters that were reported in this study seem to be in agreement with the results .
When measuring the effect of the abutment design (platform switching versus non-platform switching) on the peri-implant buy CA-074 Me it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding all periodontal parameters except for pocket probing depth. The lack of difference observed goes in accordance with previous studies by canullo et al. [17,18].
Canullo et al.  and Vela-Nebot et al.  revealed during the analysis of soft tissue esthetics including attached gingiva and papilla level a statistically significant difference between groups with PS abutments showing the best results. This better esthetic behavior seems to be strongly correlated to the lower bone loss that occurred in this group and the interproximal alveolar bone crest preservation.
One study reported that peri-implant probing around implant is a good prediction of crestal bone loss. Additionally, there is scientific evidence of correlation between the levels of the bone at the probing penetration Quirynen et al. 1992  Bragger et al. 1996 . Results observed in the present study seem to agree with the observations. There was a significant correlation between periodontal probing depth and crestal bone loss in our study. According to the results of this stud, implant with crestal bone loss displayed increasing periodontal pocket depth over time, while implant with no or little crestal bone resorption showed the opposite. Contrary finding have been presented by other authors Weber et al. 2000 .
Penarrocha et al. 2004 study design difference could explain the controversial finding, as the radiographic evaluation that was done using panoramic radiographs, which has been found to be less precise on the assessment of crestal bone loss .
Introduction Internal derangement (ID) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is one of the most common forms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) . The term ID comprises anterior disc displacement with or without reduction, perforation of the articular disc or of the retrodiscal tissue, and various degenerative changes of the disc and/or the articulating surfaces . The most commonly used classification to describe the severity of ID was proposed by Wilkes in 1989. The Wilkes classification consists of 5 stages based on clinical, radiologic, and intraoperative findings, varying from a slight forward displacement with symptom-free normal joints to essentially degenerative arthritic changes with severe clinical symptoms . Anterior disc displacement of the TMJ represents an intracapsular different conditions are recognized: anterior disc displacement with reduction (DDWR), where the proper relationship between the disc and condyle is restored during maximum mouth opening; and anterior disc displacement without reduction (DDWOR), as described by Dolwick  where the disc stays anterior to the condyle and prevents maximum mouth opening. DDWOR is clinically apparent by reduced mandibular movement and pain . .