However the colonoscopy procedure carries
However, the colonoscopy procedure carries risks of perforation and bleeding. Discomfort related to colonoscopy, such as abdominal pain and a sensation of fullness, is frequently experienced by patients during this purchase R428 procedure. Anxiety arising from this discomfort is inevitable for most patients, which may even prevent completion of the procedure in some cases. Under these circumstances, adequate patient physiological and psychological preparation is essential for a safe and successful examination and to maintain compliance during subsequent follow-up procedures. Colonoscopy under sedation is one alternative to ensure smooth performance of the procedure and is now widely applied in clinical practice. However, potential risks of cardiopulmonary complications exist, such as oversedation, hypoxemia, hypoventilation, aspiration pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and myocardial infarction, which patients and clinicians should be aware of prior to sedation. Therefore, although colonoscopy with sedation is performed to reduce anxiety and discomfort in patients during the examination, the risk of undergoing the procedure under sedation is not lower than that of colonoscopy without sedation.
The American Pain Society suggested that apart from medication, pain control can be achieved by alternative nonmedication methods, which may result in improved efficacy in pain control. One nonmedication method for pain control is listening to music, which is a noninvasive method to reduce pain and anxiety without causing any adverse effects. Currently, music is employed in many medical procedures and therapies, such as in the treatment of patients suffering from malignancy, patients undergoing imaging-guided core-needle breast biopsy, burn injury patients, and women in labor, to reduce pain and anxiety. In a colonoscopy examination, music is viewed as an effective method for reducing procedure-related anxiety.
Results Table 1 shows the basic characteristics of the 138 patients enrolled in this study. Male patients were dominant (54.3%), and the average age of the patients was 48.0±11.9 years. The percentages of patients with histories of hypertension, smoking, and alcohol consumption were 8.7%, 11.6%, and 22.5%, respectively. No significant differences in any of the basic characteristics were noted between the patients who did and those who did not listen to music during colonoscopy. Table 2 shows the results of analysis of anxiety status in patients who did and those who did not listen to music, and the anxiety score was determined to be lower among the patients who listened to music during colonoscopy without sedation (85.3±18.6 vs. 79.9±16.8, p=0.074). However, this difference was not significant. Additionally, the differences according to sub analyses of the male and female patients were not significant. Furthermore, a moderate status of anxiety was most prevalent among all the patients. Similarly, from the results shown in Table 3, analysis of anxiety status in patients who did not listen to music, those who listened to music by David Tolley, and those who listened to music by Kevin Kern showed no significant differences between the three groups although the anxiety score was the lowest in the patients who listened to music by Kevin Kern. Due to the gradually increasing tendency toward development of a mild status of anxiety in the order of not listening to music, listening to music by David Tolley, and listening to music by Kevin Kern, as shown in Table 2, we also performed a trend test for mild anxiety among patients in all the three groups, and a significant trend was noted (Fig.1A and 1B; p=0.017 for all patients, p=0.014 for analysis by sex). Multivariate analysis of a mild status of anxiety among patients in all three groups was also performed in this study, and patients who listened to music by Kevin Kern were found to have the lowest odds ratio (OR=0.34, 95% confidence interval=0.14–0.81, p=0.045; Table 4).